WADE HAMPTON, CSA - Historia

WADE HAMPTON, CSA - Historia

GENERAL WADE HAMPTON, CSA
ESTADÍSTICAS VITALES
NACIÓ: 1818 en Charleston, SC.
MURIÓ: 1902 en Columbia, SC.
CAMPAÑAS: Primer Bull Run, Península, Seven Pines, Antietam, Chambersburg, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Petersburg.
RANGO MÁS ALTO ALCANZADO: Teniente general.
BIOGRAFÍA
Wade Hampton nació en Charleston, Carolina del Sur, el 28 de marzo de 1818. Se graduó en el South Carolina College en 1826 y estudió derecho, pero no ejerció. Logró un éxito financiero con las plantaciones de su familia en Carolina del Sur y Mississippi. Hampton sintió que los estados del Sur tenían derecho a separarse, pero cuestionó la institución de la esclavitud y estaba preocupado por las consecuencias económicas de la secesión. Cuando Carolina del Sur se separó de la Unión, Hampton levantó un mando de caballería, que se conocía como la Legión de Hampton. Herido en la Primera Batalla de Bull Run, Hampton luchó en la mayor parte de la Campaña de la Península. Fue nombrado general de brigada el 23 de mayo de 1862 y fue herido nuevamente en la Batalla de Seven Pines. Hampton luchó en la Batalla de Antietam, la incursión de Chambersburg y la Batalla de Gettysburg. Herido por tercera vez en Gettysburg, fue ascendido a mayor general hasta la fecha desde el 3 de agosto de 1863. Después de la Batalla del desierto, se convirtió en comandante del cuerpo de caballería y participó en la Campaña de Petersburgo. Hampton entrenó a las tropas de caballería para luchar a pie cuando la Confederación enfrentó una escasez de caballos. Fue ascendido a teniente general el 15 de febrero de 1865, uno de los tres tenientes generales confederados que alcanzaron ese rango sin educación militar formal. Hampton lideró tropas para apoyar la retirada del general Joseph E. Johnston a través de Carolina del Sur. Como él y sus tropas no estaban realmente bajo el mando de Johnston, Hampton no tuvo que rendirse. Después de la Guerra Civil, Hampton regresó a las propiedades de su familia, que estaban en ruinas, y pudo devolverles su preciado éxito financiero. Políticamente, se opuso firmemente a los republicanos radicales y fue elegido gobernador de Carolina del Sur en 1876 y 1878. Luego fue elegido para el Senado, en el que sirvió hasta 1891. Cuando los populistas derrotaron al partido "Viejo Sur" de Hampton, Hampton puso fin a su carrera política. Murió el 11 de abril de 1902 en Columbia, Carolina del Sur.

Wade Hampton

Nacido en el condado de Halifax, Virginia, Wade Hampton era descendiente de un colono de Jamestown de 1630. Antes de la Revolución Americana, sus padres decidieron buscar fortuna en la frontera de Carolina del Sur. Allí, a excepción de Wade y tres de sus hermanos, la familia fue masacrada por indios en 1776.

Durante los primeros años de la Revolución, Hampton se mostró reacio a declarar su lealtad a los revolucionarios oa la corona inglesa. Pero después de comenzar a vender provisiones a las tropas estadounidenses, aceptó una comisión de los patriotas y se ganó una reputación militar notable.

Poco después de la Revolución, Hampton compró un terreno considerable cerca de Columbia, la nueva capital de Carolina del Sur. Cultivaba tabaco y cereales. En 1790 poseía 86 esclavos y trabajaba más de 1000 acres de tierra. Después de la invención de la desmotadora de algodón, se dedicó a la producción de algodón. Según los informes, en 1799 cosechó algodón por valor de casi $ 90 000. En general, se le atribuye ser uno de los primeros plantadores de Carolina del Sur en demostrar que la producción de algodón a gran escala podría ser rentable. También tenía extensas propiedades en Mississippi y Louisiana, donde más de 3000 esclavos producían algodón y caña de azúcar.

En la tradición sureña de servicio público, Hampton participó activamente en la política de Carolina del Sur, sirviendo como delegado a la asamblea estatal y como miembro de la convención que ratificó la Constitución de los Estados Unidos. Representó a Carolina del Sur dos veces en el Congreso de los Estados Unidos. Además, fue juez de paz y se desempeñó brevemente como alguacil.

Ante la amenaza de guerra con Inglaterra, Hampton volvió a estar activo en el ejército. Cuando estalló la guerra de 1812, fue puesto bajo el mando del general James Wilkinson como general de brigada. Pero surgieron malos sentimientos, y después de la campaña contra Montreal, Wilkinson responsabilizó a Hampton por la derrota. Aunque Hampton fue exonerado por el Departamento de Guerra, renunció a su cargo y regresó a Carolina del Sur. A su muerte en 1835, tenía fama de ser el plantador más rico de los Estados Unidos.


Organización de la Legión [editar | editar fuente]

Composición original [editar | editar fuente]

Seis compañías de infantería:

Co. A Voluntarios de Infantería Ligera de Washington (Charleston)
Guardias Co. B Watson (Edgefield)
Guardia C Manning (Sumter)
Fusileros Co. D Gist (Anderson)
Guardias del Co. E Bozeman (Greenville)
Co. F Davis Guards (Greenville)

Co. A Edgefield Húsares (Edgefield)
Tropa de Co. B Brooks (Greenville)
Tropa del distrito de Co. C Beaufort (Beaufort)


Contenido

Tras el sangriento rechazo de la Unión en la Batalla de Cold Harbor el 3 de junio, Grant decidió una nueva estrategia. Desde el 4 de mayo, su campaña por tierra había consistido en grandes batallas contra Robert E. Lee, cada una de las cuales (Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna, Totopotomoy Creek y Cold Harbor) fue seguida por un período de estancamiento y luego una maniobra. alrededor del flanco derecho de Lee en un intento de alejarlo de sus trincheras y sacarlo al aire libre. Cada maniobra acercaba a los ejércitos a la capital confederada de Richmond, pero la ciudad no era el objetivo principal: la destrucción del ejército de Lee era el objetivo establecido por Grant y el presidente Abraham Lincoln, en el entendimiento de que Richmond y la Confederación caerían si Lee fueron derrotados. [5]

La nueva estrategia de Grant era marchar con su ejército de 100.000 hombres hacia el sur, cruzar el río James y apoderarse del centro ferroviario de Petersburgo. Esto cortaría las líneas de suministro tanto a Richmond como a Lee, forzando la evacuación de la capital y probablemente induciendo a Lee a atacar al ejército de Grant de una manera favorable a la superioridad numérica y la potencia de fuego de Grant. Su plan requería secreto porque su ejército sería vulnerable si era interceptado mientras cruzaba el río y trató de llegar a Petersburgo antes de que las defensas de la ciudad pudieran mejorarse más allá de la fuerza simbólica que estaba allí actualmente. Por lo tanto, el 5 de junio Grant ordenó una incursión de caballería bajo el mando del mayor general Philip Sheridan al noroeste hacia Charlottesville. La redada tenía dos objetivos iniciales. Primero, Sheridan alejaría a la caballería confederada del ejército principal de Grant para que su cuerpo de infantería pudiera separarse sigilosamente del ejército de Lee en Cold Harbor y moverse hacia James. En segundo lugar, los soldados de caballería de la Unión destrozarían Virginia Central hacia Richmond, cortando al ejército de Lee de los tan necesarios suministros alimentarios producidos por el valle de Shenandoah. Sheridan recibió la orden de destruir el puente del ferrocarril en el río Rivanna, al este de Charlottesville, y destruir las vías desde allí hasta Gordonsville. Entonces, sus hombres retrocederían y destruirían la vía hasta Hanover Junction, cerca de Richmond. [6]

Justo después de que Grant diera las órdenes a Sheridan se enteró de la victoria de la Unión del Mayor General David Hunter en la Batalla de Piedmont en el Valle de Shenandoah contra Brig. General William E. "Grumble" Jones. Vio la oportunidad de que Hunter pudiera viajar al este desde Staunton para encontrarse con Sheridan en Charlottesville para que pudieran ser una amenaza combinada para el ejército de Lee desde el oeste. Grant modificó sus órdenes, diciéndole a Sheridan que esperara a Hunter cerca de Charlottesville y luego separara una brigada para cortar el canal del río James. [7]

Unión Editar

los Cuerpo de Caballería de la Union Ejército del Potomac, comandada por el mayor general Philip H. Sheridan, comenzó su incursión con dos de sus tres divisiones, 9.286 hombres, [2] organizados de la siguiente manera: [8]

  • Primera División de Caballería, comandada por Brig. El general Alfred T. A. Torbert, estaba formado por las brigadas comandadas por Brig. Gens. George A. Custer y Wesley Merritt, y el Coronel Thomas C. Devin.
  • Segunda División de Caballería, comandada por Brig. Gen. David McM. Gregg, consistió en las brigadas comandadas por Brig. El general Henry E. Davies, Jr. y el coronel J. Irvin Gregg (primo del general Gregg).
  • La Brigada de Artillería a Caballo, comandada por el Capitán James M. Robertson, incluyó seis baterías de artillería con 20 cañones.

Tercera División de Caballería de Sheridan, comandada por Brig. El general James H. Wilson, permaneció en Cold Harbor con el ejército del Potomac, bajo la supervisión del comandante del ejército, el general de división George G. Meade. Acompañó al ejército en su marcha hacia Petersburgo. Sheridan dejó atrás con Wilson a los hombres de sus otras dos divisiones que no tenían monturas. [9]

Confederado Editar

los Cuerpo de Caballería del Confederado Ejército de Virginia del Norte estaba sin un comandante formal, luego de la muerte del Mayor General J.E.B. Stuart en mayo. El comandante de caballería que se oponía a la fuerza de Sheridan era el mayor general Wade Hampton. (Hampton fue nombrado comandante formal del Cuerpo de Caballería el 11 de agosto de 1864). El mando de Hampton constaba de 6.762 hombres, [2] organizados de la siguiente manera: [10]

  • La División de Hampton, comandada por Wade Hampton, estaba formada por las brigadas comandadas por Brig. Gens. Thomas L. Rosser y Matthew C. Butler y el Coronel Gilbert J. Wright. (La brigada de Rosser también se conocía como la Brigada Laurel. Wright comandó la Brigada de Young, llamada así por su ex comandante, el general de brigada MB Young). eran parte del 4to Regimiento de Caballería de Carolina del Sur. [11] [12]
  • La división de Fitzhugh Lee, comandada por el mayor general Fitzhugh Lee (sobrino del general Robert E. Lee), estaba formada por las brigadas de Brig. Gens. Williams C. Wickham y Lunsford L. Lomax, y un comando independiente con el 1er Batallón de Caballería de Maryland, comandado por el Coronel Bradley T. Johnson, y la Artillería Ligera de Baltimore.
  • El Batallón de Artillería a Caballo, comandado por el Mayor James Breathed, incluía cuatro baterías de artillería. La fuerza total de artillería de Hampton era de 14 cañones.

El resto del Cuerpo de Caballería: la División de Rooney Lee, comandada por el Mayor General W.H.F. "Rooney" Lee (hijo de Robert E. Lee), un comando de caballería independiente bajo el mando de Brig. El general Martin Gary y la mayor parte de la artillería a caballo permanecieron con el ejército durante la incursión de Sheridan. [10]

Sheridan y sus dos divisiones de caballería abandonaron sus campamentos al norte de Cold Harbor a las 5 a.m. del 7 de junio. Cruzaron un puente de pontones en New Castle sobre el río Pamunkey y se dirigieron hacia el noroeste, con la división de Gregg a la cabeza, seguida de Torbert. Hacía calor y enormes nubes de polvo se elevaban sobre la marcha. El primer día, la columna solo pudo marchar unas 15 millas. Numerosos caballos colapsaron bajo la tensión, y siguiendo la convención que Sheridan usó en su incursión de mayo a Yellow Tavern y Richmond, fueron fusilados y abandonados a un lado de la carretera. Aunque había 125 vagones siguiendo la columna de Sheridan, a los hombres se les entregaron raciones de solo tres días y se esperaba que se alimentaran a sí mismos y a sus caballos en el camino, grupos de forrajeo desmontados repartidos a lo largo de la ruta. En el segundo día, con la división de Torbert a la cabeza, los federales progresaron mejor, cubriendo las 25 millas hasta la estación Pole Cat en el ferrocarril Richmond, Fredericksburg y Potomac. La columna de la Unión estaba plagada no solo por el calor y la humedad del verano de Virginia; las escaramuzas con grupos de asalto montados irregulares retrasaron el avance. [13]

Los exploradores confederados pasaron la noticia de los movimientos de Sheridan a Hampton en la mañana del 8 de junio. Adivinó correctamente que los objetivos de la Unión eran los cruces ferroviarios en Gordonsville y Charlottesville, y sabía que tendría que moverse rápidamente para bloquear la amenaza. Ordenó a su propia división que se reuniera a las 2 a.m. del 9 de junio y ordenó a Fitzhugh Lee que los siguiera lo más rápido posible. Aunque los federales tenían una ventaja de dos días, los confederados tenían la ventaja de una ruta más corta (aproximadamente 45 millas frente a 65) y un terreno que les era más familiar. El 9 de junio, el primer aniversario de la Batalla de la estación Brandy, caminaron a un ritmo lento y deliberado, recorriendo casi 30 millas a través de Yellow Tavern, subiendo por Telegraph Road y luego siguiendo la ruta del Ferrocarril Central de Virginia a Bumpass y Fredericks. Estaciones Hall. [14]

En la noche del 10 de junio, ambas fuerzas se habían reunido alrededor de la estación Trevilian, llamada así por Charles Goodall Trevilian, que era dueño de una casa de plantación cerca de la estación. Los confederados acamparon en cuatro lugares inmediatamente al sur de Virginia Central en Gordonsville Road, desde justo al oeste de Trevilian Station al este hasta Louisa Court House. Los federales habían cruzado el río North Anna en Carpenters Ford y habían acampado en lugares cercanos a Clayton's Store. [15]

11 de junio de 1864 Editar

Al amanecer del 11 de junio, Hampton fue despertado por Rosser y Butler con el sonido de las cornetas que agitaban al enemigo. Los dos comandantes de brigada confederados ya habían despertado a sus hombres. Rosser preguntó: "General, ¿qué se propone hacer hoy, si puedo preguntar?" Hampton respondió: "¡Me propongo pelear!" [dieciséis]

Hampton fue informado por el ordenanza de Black Union, espiando para el General Rosser en Union HQs, [17] que la fuerza de Sheridan se acercaría al ferrocarril desde la dirección de Clayton's Store y él sabía que había dos caminos que conducían al sur desde la ubicación del cruce de caminos, ambos a través de gruesos bosque. Un camino conducía a Trevilian Station y el otro a Louisa Court House. Hampton ideó un plan en el que dividiría sus divisiones a través de las carreteras y convergería sobre el enemigo en la encrucijada, empujando a Sheridan de regreso al río North Anna. Hampton tomó dos de sus brigadas (Butler's y Wright's) con él desde Trevilian y su tercera (Rosser's) quedó a su izquierda para evitar flanquear. A la otra división bajo el mando de Fitzhugh Lee se le ordenó avanzar desde Louisa Court House, formando el flanco derecho. [18]

Mientras los confederados comenzaban su avance, Sheridan comenzaba el suyo. Las brigadas de Torbert al mando de Merritt y Devin avanzaron por el camino hacia la estación Trevilian, mientras que la tercera, la de Custer, avanzó hacia Louisa Court House. El primer contacto se produjo en Trevilian Road cuando la 4ª Brigada de Butler de la Caballería de Carolina del Sur chocó con la línea de escaramuzas de Merritt. Hampton desmontó a sus hombres y empujó a los escaramuzadores hacia el espeso bosque, esperando que Fitzhugh Lee llegara a su derecha en cualquier momento. Sin embargo, Hampton fue superado en número y pronto se vio obligado a retroceder. Finalmente, la Brigada de Wright se unió a la lucha cuerpo a cuerpo en la espesa maleza, pero después de varias horas también fueron empujados hacia atrás a la vista de la Estación Trevilian. Algunos de los oficiales de estado mayor de Hampton se quejaron de que Fitz Lee no había acudido en ayuda de Hampton como se esperaba debido a su falta de voluntad para apoyar a ningún oficial superior que no fuera J.E.B. Stuart. [19]

En el flanco derecho, Fitzhugh Lee se encontró con la brigada que avanzaba al mando de Custer. La Brigada de Wickham luchó brevemente con la 1ª y 7ª Caballería de Michigan y luego se retiró. Lee condujo a la Brigada de Lomax directamente hacia la estación Trevilian y Wickham pasó por Louisa Court House en su parte trasera. Mientras tanto, Custer condujo a su brigada por un camino más directo hacia el suroeste hasta la estación Trevilian. Custer encontró la estación totalmente desprotegida, ocupada solo por los trenes de Hampton: vagones de suministros, cajones que contenían municiones y comida, y cientos de caballos. Ordenó a la 5ª Caballería de Michigan que cargara y capturara el lote, lo que hicieron con entusiasmo. Los habitantes de Michigan capturaron 800 prisioneros, 90 carros, seis cajones de artillería y 1500 caballos, pero dejaron a Custer aislado de Sheridan y, en su persecución de los carros que huían, perdieron a varios de sus propios hombres y gran parte de su recompensa. Uno de los regimientos de Wright, el 7º de Georgia, se interpuso entre la fuerza de Custer y la Estación Trevilian. Custer ordenó al séptimo Michigan que cargara, haciendo retroceder a los georgianos. [20]

Hampton ahora se enteró de la amenaza en su zona de retaguardia y retiró a la Brigada de Rosser de proteger su flanco izquierdo y los envió a la estación, convergiendo con el acercamiento de Lee desde Louisa Court House y con las brigadas de Wright y Butler. De repente, Custer descubrió que se le había acabado la suerte cuando lo presionaron desde tres lados en la estación. Salió y se dirigió por Gordonsville Road, llevándose consigo su oneroso botín. Sin embargo, no notó una batería de artillería a caballo confederada en una colina al norte de la estación, que abrió fuego tan pronto como sus hombres estuvieron dentro del alcance. En este punto, su flanco derecho se vio aún más abrumado por las brigadas de carga de Hampton. [21]

Custer estaba ahora virtualmente rodeado, su mando en un círculo cada vez más pequeño, ya que todos los lados estaban cargados y golpeados con proyectiles. El historiador Eric J. Wittenberg describió la situación del general como "La primera última batalla de Custer", presagiando su famosa desaparición en la Batalla de Little Bighorn. Custer, sospechando que su mando pronto sería invadido y preocupado de que su bandera fuera capturada, la arrancó de su bastón cuando el abanderado fue golpeado y la escondió dentro de su abrigo. Sheridan en este punto escuchó los disparos de la dirección de Custer y se dio cuenta de que necesitaba ayuda. Cargó contra las brigadas de Devin y Merritt, empujando a los hombres de Hampton hasta la estación, mientras que a la brigada de Gregg se le ordenó girar hacia el flanco derecho expuesto de Fitzhugh Lee, empujándolo así hacia atrás. Hampton retrocedió hacia el oeste, Lee hacia el este, y la batalla terminó por el día con los federales en posesión de la estación Trevilian. La brigada de Custer había sufrido 361 bajas, incluyendo más de la mitad del quinto Michigan. Cuando Sheridan le preguntó a Custer si había perdido sus colores, se los sacó del abrigo y exclamó: "¡No por una maldita vista!" [22]

Esa noche, Fitzhugh Lee maniobró hacia el sur para conectarse con Hampton al oeste de la estación Trevilian. Sheridan se enteró de que el general Hunter no se dirigía a Charlottesville como se había planeado originalmente, sino a Lynchburg. También recibió información de que la infantería del mayor general confederado John C. Breckinridge había sido avistada cerca de Waynesboro, bloqueando efectivamente cualquier posibilidad de un mayor avance, por lo que decidió abandonar su incursión y regresar al ejército principal en Cold Harbor. [23]

12 de junio de 1864 Editar

El 12 de junio, cuando la caballería de la Unión se preparaba para retirarse, la división de Gregg destruyó la estación Trevilian, varios vagones y aproximadamente una milla de vía al este de la estación, mientras que la división de Torbert rompió la vía hacia el oeste. Preocupado por los confederados flotando cerca de su flanco, alrededor de las 3 p.m. Sheridan envió a las tres brigadas de Torbert, apoyadas por la brigada de Davies de la división de Gregg, en un reconocimiento al oeste en las carreteras de Gordonsville y Charlottesville. Encontraron a toda la fuerza de Hampton en una línea en forma de L detrás de unos parapetos de troncos en las granjas Ogg y Gentry, a dos millas al noroeste de Trevilian. [24]

Torbert lanzó siete asaltos contra el ápice y el tramo más corto de la "L", pero sus brigadas fueron rechazadas con grandes pérdidas. Fitzhugh Lee separó su división de la línea y sus brigadas al mando de Wickham y Lomax giraron para golpear el flanco derecho de Union con un fuerte contraataque. La batalla terminó alrededor de las 10 p.m., y ambos lados permanecieron en su lugar. Sin embargo, tarde en la noche, Torbert se retiró. Sheridan, agobiado por muchos hombres heridos, desproporcionadamente de la brigada de Custer, unos 500 prisioneros y escasez de municiones, decidió retirarse. Planeaba una marcha tranquila de regreso a Cold Harbor, sabiendo que Hampton se vería obligado a seguir y que se mantendría ocupado durante días, inaccesible en ese momento para Robert E. Lee. [25]

Los resultados de la Batalla de la Estación Trevilian fueron mixtos. Las bajas de la Unión fueron 1.007 (102 muertos, 470 heridos y 435 desaparecidos o capturados). Las pérdidas confederadas se informaron como 612, pero esto incluye las pérdidas solo de la División de Hampton y 831 es una mejor estimación total. [4] Fue el enfrentamiento de caballería más grande y sangriento durante la guerra. [26]

Sheridan sostuvo que la batalla fue una victoria de la Unión. En 1866, escribió: "El resultado fue un éxito constante y la aniquilación casi total de la caballería rebelde. Marchamos cuando y donde quisiéramos, éramos siempre la parte atacante y siempre triunfamos". Las memorias personales de Ulysses S. Grant coincidieron con el sentimiento y muchos de los biógrafos de Sheridan aceptan su afirmación. Como distracción, puede considerarse un éxito parcial para la Unión. No fue hasta que Grant comenzó a atacar a las débiles fuerzas en Petersburgo que el general Lee finalmente comprendió que el Ejército de la Unión se había alejado de él y había cruzado el río James. Sin embargo, Sheridan falló en dos objetivos importantes. No pudo interrumpir permanentemente el ferrocarril central de Virginia porque en dos semanas se reparó la vía y los suministros continuaron fluyendo al ejército del general Lee. El encuentro planeado entre Sheridan y Hunter fracasó por completo. Hunter fue posteriormente derrotado en la Batalla de Lynchburg (del 17 al 18 de junio) por el Teniente General Jubal Early en el Valle y pronto fue empujado hacia Maryland. Eric J. Wittenberg, el autor del estudio definitivo moderno de la batalla, afirma que si Sheridan hubiera destruido con éxito el ferrocarril, Hunter podría haber logrado capturar Lynchburg porque Early se habría visto obligado a lidiar con Sheridan en su lugar. Llamó a la batalla un "desastre absoluto" para la caballería federal y afirmó que "nada sobre la batalla de la estación Trevilian puede considerarse una victoria de la Unión". [27]

Fue por sus acciones en la batalla de Trevilian Station que el destacado arquitecto Frank Furness recibió la Medalla de Honor. [28]

Civil War Trust (una división de American Battlefield Trust) y sus socios han adquirido y preservado 2226 acres (9,01 km 2) del campo de batalla en más de una docena de transacciones desde 2001. Gran parte de esta tierra es ahora propiedad de Trevilian Station Battlefield Foundation, que ha desarrollado un recorrido en automóvil en línea que comienza en el Palacio de Justicia del Condado de Louisa. [29]


En el oeste de Alaska, un impulso para cambiar el nombre del distrito que honra al general confederado dueño de esclavos

BETEL - La parte más pobre de Alaska, dibujada como un área de censo, una especie de lugar que solo existe en este estado, lleva el nombre de un hombre que no solo nunca puso un pie aquí, sino que fue un general de la Guerra Civil dueño de esclavos. en su estado natal de Carolina del Sur.

Si eso no es suficiente para cuestionar por qué es honrado en Alaska, considere esto: después de la Guerra Civil, el hombre se convirtió en gobernador aprovechando una campaña terrorista de asesinatos que arrasó Carolina del Sur y contribuyó al final de la Reconstrucción. La privación de derechos de los negros resultante en el sur duró generaciones.

El nombre del general era Wade Hampton III. Y algunos dicen que fue un gran error nombrarle un lugar en Alaska.

El área del censo de Wade Hampton, esencialmente un distrito de registro, siempre se ha destacado, una rareza política en Alaska. Otras áreas del censo corresponden a distritos o límites geográficos. Está Valdez-Cordova y el municipio de Anchorage, Dillingham y Aleutians West, Bethel y Nome. Para analizar los datos de población, son el equivalente aproximado de los condados de otros estados.

El área del censo de Wade Hampton se extiende a lo largo de la costa del mar de Bering y sube por el río Yukon. Incluye Emmonak, St. Mary's y Russian Mission.

Hampton, que se convirtió en senador de los Estados Unidos, era un rico dueño de esclavos con plantaciones en Carolina del Sur y Mississippi, un cazador y jinete que hacia el final de la Guerra Civil se convirtió en comandante de la caballería confederada.

Su elección a gobernador en 1876 fue impulsada por los asesinatos y la interrupción de los camisas rojas, un brazo paramilitar blanco de los demócratas del sur que abrazó la violencia para derrocar al gobierno de la Reconstrucción dirigido por los republicanos, el partido del presidente Abraham Lincoln, dijo Ehren Foley, un surcoreano. Historiador de Carolina y experto en Reconstrucción posterior a la Guerra Civil.

Algunas fuentes consideran a los camisas rojas como terroristas domésticos. Su grupo incluía a ex miembros del Ku Klux Klan y su estrategia de restaurar el poder blanco a través de la violencia y la intimidación fue la misma, dicen los historiadores.

Hampton, que murió en 1902, nunca llegó a Alaska. Pero su yerno lo hizo y, después de una dramática llegada a Nome, usó su puesto como juez territorial para nombrar un distrito minero para su difunto suegro, según una historia de la ciudad de Marshall.

Ahora, algunos líderes nativos de Alaska dicen que el nombre de Hampton y todo lo que representa debería ser eliminado.

"Mientras más personas lo escuchen o sepan, más enojados se sentirán de que nos llamen el Área del Censo de Wade Hampton", dijo Myron Naneng, presidente de la organización regional nativa sin fines de lucro, Association of Village Council, con sede en Bethel. Presidentes.

Los historiadores dicen que Hampton fue un moderado entre los líderes sureños de la época. Pero para Naneng, cuya aldea natal, Hooper Bay, se encuentra en el área del censo, el nombre es tan malo como parece.

"¿Le gustaría que le pusieran el nombre de Adolf Hitler?" preguntó.

Una misteriosa conexión

Pocos habitantes de Alaska han oído hablar de Wade Hampton. Incluso en Carolina del Sur, donde un condado, una ciudad, dos escuelas secundarias y docenas de calles llevan su nombre, muchos desconocen los detalles de su historia, dijo Foley, el historiador. Hay una estatua ecuestre de Hampton de 15 pies de altura en la Casa del Estado de Carolina del Sur. Un buque de carga de la Segunda Guerra Mundial que lleva su nombre fue hundido frente a la costa de Groenlandia por un submarino alemán.

Aún así, el nombre, si no la conexión de Alaska, es familiar para los demógrafos, economistas y otros investigadores de Alaska que usan datos del Censo de EE. UU.

"He estado negando con la cabeza sobre eso durante toda mi carrera", dijo Gunnar Knapp, director del Instituto de Investigación Social y Económica de la Universidad de Alaska Anchorage. Desde el principio se dio cuenta de que el área llevaba el nombre del general confederado, pero estaba desconcertado por cómo sucedió.

El área del censo de Wade Hampton es la parte más pobre de Alaska y una de las más empobrecidas del país, según las tablas del censo compiladas por Knapp.

Tiene la tasa de desempleo más alta del estado y la cuarta más alta del país. Más de la mitad de los hogares reciben cupones de alimentos, el nivel más alto en el estado y el país. Un tercio de las familias con niños vive por debajo de la línea de pobreza federal, nuevamente la mayor parte en Alaska y en el 10 por ciento superior a nivel nacional. En esas medidas, se parece mucho a algunas zonas rurales del sur profundo.

Alrededor del 95 por ciento de las personas son nativas de Alaska, según los datos del censo. Muchos en la región todavía viven de la subsistencia, la pesca, la caza y la recolección de alimentos silvestres.

El área apareció por primera vez en los registros del censo de EE. UU. En 1920 como un distrito de registro, dijo la Oficina del Censo de EE. UU. En respuesta a preguntas. En 1960, era un distrito electoral utilizado para el censo. En 1970, se incorporó al distrito de registro de tierras de Betel, pero siguió siendo su propia área de censo.

El área del censo no figura en el Diccionario de nombres de lugares de Alaska de Orth, la Biblia de características físicas con nombre en Alaska publicada por primera vez por el Servicio Geológico de EE. UU. En 1967.

"Este no es un lugar geográfico. Es una construcción", o una designación administrativa, dijo Jo Antonson, historiadora del estado.

La infelicidad por el nombre ha sido tranquila hasta ahora, dijo Naneng, pero quiere que eso cambie.

"Va a salir a la superficie", dijo.

Una espada de doble filo

Hampton nació en una de las familias más ricas del Sur anterior a la Guerra Civil. Su abuelo fue un soldado de la Guerra Revolucionaria y congresista estadounidense que amasó una fortuna con las plantaciones trabajadas por esclavos. La plantación Millwood de la familia se consideraba el centro político de Carolina del Sur, dijeron los historiadores.

Hampton era un hombre corpulento y de rostro tupido con pasión y habilidad para la caza de osos.

"En el momento de su muerte, la reputación de Hampton como un poderoso cazador había crecido hasta el nivel de la mitología, incluso los republicanos fueron víctimas de su hechizo", dijo Rod Andrew, profesor de historia de la Universidad de Clemson, en su biografía de 2008, "Wade Hampton: Confederate Guerrero del Redentor del Sur ". "Theodore Roosevelt escribió una vez que Wade Hampton había matado 'treinta o cuarenta' osos con un cuchillo de caza". Pero el sobrino nieto de Hampton explicó que eso sucedió solo una vez, cuando Hampton estaba tratando de proteger a los perros jóvenes que tenían un oso a raya, escribió el biógrafo.

Como senador en la legislatura estatal, Hampton se opuso a que el sur se separara de la Unión, según relatos históricos. Pero con la llegada de la guerra, Hampton renunció a su puesto y se alistó en el Ejército Confederado como soldado raso de 42 años. No tenía experiencia militar, pero fue nombrado oficial debido a su posición social.

Organizó su propia legión y llevaba una espada de doble filo de 4 pies de largo. El sable se consideraba obsoleto, pero Hampton usó el suyo en la batalla con la caballería, escribió Robert Ackerman en su biografía de 2007 de Hampton. En lo que se conoció como la "Incursión de bistec", sus tropas capturaron 304 prisioneros y 2.400 cabezas de ganado, proporcionando la carne que tanto necesitaba un ejército sureño mal provisto.

Cuando finalmente se rindió, era teniente general y comandante superior de la caballería confederada. También estaba en ruinas financieras, según los historiadores. Los soldados del general sindical William T. Sherman habían incendiado la casa familiar de Millwood. Los antiguos esclavos de Hampton eran hombres y mujeres libres.


WADE HAMPTON, CSA - Historia

El siguiente documento educativo se corresponde con Unidad cinco: Los conservadores responden a la emancipación en el Después de la esclavitud exposición. Tenga en cuenta la sección "Preguntas a considerar" que se incluye al final de cada documento.

Contexto
Wade Hampton III de Carolina del Sur era uno de los plantadores más ricos del sur cuando estalló la guerra en 1861. Sin experiencia militar previa, levantó y equipó tropas, conocidas como la Legión de Hampton, y comenzó a ganar renombre militar en la Batalla de Manassas. En agosto de 1864, se había convertido en el comandante de caballería de Robert E. Lee. Mientras otros generales se rendían en la primavera de 1865, Hampton quería seguir luchando, llevando sus tropas a México si era necesario, y se rindió a regañadientes. Como el "bello ideal" del aristócrata de las plantaciones que surgió para defender el Sur, Hampton fue tremendamente popular en Carolina del Sur en los primeros años de la Reconstrucción. A pesar de anunciar que no estaba interesado en el puesto, los votantes casi lo eligieron gobernador en 1865. Si bien más tarde sería objeto de gran parte de la conmemoración de la "Causa Perdida" (tanto por su papel en el derrocamiento de la Reconstrucción en 1876 como por todo lo que hizo durante la propia Guerra Civil), Hampton también contribuyó a ese movimiento, como demuestra este discurso no reconstruido ante un grupo de veteranos confederados en Walhalla en 1866.

El consejo de Wade Hampton para los veteranos confederados

. . . Durante cuatro años, el Sur fue víctima de una guerra cruel e innecesaria, una guerra marcada en el bando de sus oponentes por una barbarie nunca superada, si no igualada, en los anales de la guerra civilizada.

La espada no pudo conquistarla, porque en casi todos los campos de batalla ella salió victoriosa, y sus enemigos se vieron obligados a recurrir a armas más acordes con su naturaleza: el fuego y el hambre. La antorcha se aplicó con mano despiadada. La mansión de los ricos, la cabaña de los pobres pueblos pacíficos, ciudades prósperas, incluso los templos del Dios Altísimo, cayó ante este despiadado destructor, dejando para marcar los lugares donde una vez estuvieron, pero cenizas y ruinas ennegrecidas.

Todos los recursos industriales del Sur fueron destruidos o robados sin razón, y una hambruna terrible siguió los pasos de los invasores. The men who had borne without a murmur every privation, who had faced death in a thousand shapes without flinching, were not proof against the cries which came to them from homeless and starving wives and children. They laid down their arms, which they had crowned with eternal lustre, and they accepted the terms offered to them by the North. What were these terms? Throughout the whole war the North declared in the most solemn and authoritative manner that she fought solely to re-establish the Union: to bring back to one fold all the States, and to give to all equal rights and equal liberty. This was the constant declaration of Mr. LINCOLN. Mr. SEWARD not only announced the same principle, but he declared that whatever might be the result of the war not only would all the rights of the Southern States be preserved, but that all their institutions would be intact. The Congress of the United States in a resolution passed, I think unanimously, and never repealed, announced the object and the sole object of the war to be the restoration of he Union under the supremacy of the Constitution.

The very powers under which we laid down our arms promised the protection of the Government and gave the assurance that we should not be interfered with, so long as we obeyed the laws of the States wherein we resided. These declarations were made not only to the South, but to foreign nations and the South was assured that she had but to acknowledge the supremacy of the National Government to be received into the Union, as equal members of the great family of States, with all her rights and all her privileges unimpaired.

I am aware that the North has given a new meaning to this word when applied to the South. For the South to be loyal in the eyes of the North, she must admit herself to be inferior in all points she must declare that she has sinned, and, like a repentant child, she must humbly sue for forgiveness. She must pronounce State Rights and State Sovereignty fallacies, and she must forget the teachings of PATRICK HENRY, of JEFFERSON and of MADISON. You, men of Pickens, must forget the illustrious son you gave to our State, and you must brand CALHOUN as a traitor. The names of McDUFFIE, CHEVES, HAYNE, HAMILTON, HARPER, must no longer be held in reverence in their own State, as those of great statesmen and pure patriots, but the men who bore them, like their immortal compatriot, are to be called traitors, and their doctrines seditious. You will not be loyal until you import, along with everything else, your politics, your morality and your religion from the North.

For four years the North waged war upon us, only, as she solemnly declared, to bring us back into the Union. More than a year ago the South expressed her willingness to return, and yet she is now as effectually out of the Union as if she had never formed a part of it. The North professed to fight for the Constitution. As soon as she had the power to do so, she changed that Constitution, and she violated its sacred provisions. The North protested that she did not fight for conquest, or for plunder. The Southern States are at this moment practically conquered provinces, and more of their moveable property is now in the hands of Northern soldiers, who stole it, than in those of its rightful possessors. The parole which Southern soldiers received promised, as I have already said, that they should not be interfered with, so long as they obeyed the laws of their own States. And yet on their return to their States they were not allowed to exercise any right pertaining to free citizens, until they had, under oath, endorsed all the Acts of Congress and declared the abolition of slavery fixed, irrevocable and constitutional.

Amnesty for the past has been repeatedly promised to the South, yet how many of her citizens are still, in the brotherly language of the Radicals, only "unpardoned rebels," whilst her most honored and best beloved son languishes in a felon's cell, denied his sacred right guaranteed by the Constitution, of a "speedy trial by an impartial jury." The Southern States were to be recognized as equal members of the Union and even in the imposition of taxes, there is no equality, for the cotton of the South has to bear a heavy discriminating tax for the benefit of the North.

All the rights of the South were to be held sacred. She has only the right to live, and to labor, perhaps to complain, though to do so may be treason.

Of all the inconsistencies of which the North has been guilty-and their name is legion-none is greater than that by which she forced the Southern States, while rigidly excluding them from the Union, to ratify the Constitutional Amendment abolishing slavery, which they could do legally only as States of that Union. But the deed has been done, and I for one, do honestly declare that I never wish to see it revoked. Nor do I believe that the people of the South would now remand the negro to slavery if they had the power to do so unquestioned. Under our paternal care, from a mere handful he grew to be a mighty host. He came to us a heathen, we made him a Christian. Idle, vicious, savage in his own country in ours he became industrious, gentle, civilized. Let his history as a slave be compared hereafter with that which he will make for himself as a freeman, and by the result of that comparison we are willing to be judged. A great responsibility is lifted from our shoulders by this emancipation, and we willingly commit his destiny to his own hands, hoping that he may prove himself worthy of the new position in which he has been placed. As a slave he was faithful to us as a freeman, let us treat him as a friend. Deal with him frankly, justly, kindly, and my word for it he will reciprocate your kindness, clinging to his old home, his own country and his former masters.

If you wish to see him contented, industrious, useful, aid him in his effort to elevate himself in the scale of civilization, and thus fit him not only to enjoy the blessings of freedom, but to appreciate its duties.

Fuente: New York Times, October 17, 1866

Questions to Consider

    What were the terms under which the Confederate armies surrendered? Does Hampton misunderstand these terms, and if so, why?


Wade Hampton III Monument

East of the State House across from Trinity Cathedral
Installed November 20, 1906
Designed by Frederick Wellington Ruckstull
Funded by State Commission, United Daughters of the Confederacy (Wade Hampton Chapter), United Confederate Veterans (Hampton Camp)
Letters Carved 1931

Moved to current location
Installed 1969

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Wade Hampton III Monument, 2019. Historic Columbia collection

Postcard depicting Wade Hampton III Monument in its original location, 1910. Historic Columbia collection, HCF 2007.6.25

Postcard depicting Wade Hampton III Monument in its original location, 1910. Historic Columbia collection, HCF 2007.6.25

Plans for the creation of a memorial honoring Wade Hampton III began shortly after his death in 1902. The monument commission selected prominent sculptor Frederick Wellington Ruckstull to create this piece, which was unveiled in 1906. The fifteen-foot-tall equestrian sculpture efficiently commemorates the multiple leadership positions held over his long life: while the body, horse, and plaques naming Civil War battles recall Hampton’s command of a Confederate cavalry, the figure’s head and distinctive facial hair depict Hampton as he appeared while serving as South Carolina’s governor (1876-1879) and U.S. senator (1879-1889). His election to the governorship was secured in part by the use of fraudulent tissue ballots and with the help of the Red Shirts, a paramilitary organization that threatened potential black voters with violence. For Hampton and others former Confederation, the “redemption” of their return to power was completed by the Compromise of 1877 that saw the U.S. government withdraw federal troops from the South, ending the Reconstruction period. Press comments from across South Carolina, reprinted in The State after the statue’s unveiling, often referenced his role and that of the Red Shirts in the campaign of 1876, as of singular importance for example, the Anderson Intelligencer lauded him “not only for what he did during the war, but also, and more particularly for the part he played in the dark times of Reconstruction, when the hand of the beast was at Carolina’s throat…”

Originally installed across from Hampton’s grave at Trinity Cathedral, the monument was moved in front of the state office building named for Hampton in 1969.


“General Wade Hampton Cannot Be Spared”

Meanwhile, the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia was expanded from a division into a corps. Jeb Stuart remained a major general, but joining him at that rank were Wade Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee, with Hampton retaining his seniority over the latter, so that when Stuart was killed at Yellow Tavern (11 May 1864), command fell to Hampton— or it did eventually. At first Lee, who had mixed feelings about Wade Hampton, gave the South Carolinian not command over the entire corps but only seniority over the cavalry divisions when they operated together. Lee had no doubts about Hampton’s gallantry. He had praised him highly and repeatedly denied efforts to have him transferred out of the Army of Northern Virginia (“General Hampton cannot be spared” ). But for all his youth and rashness, Lee had liked and trusted Stuart. He was not yet sure if Hampton had the capacity and élan for corps command of the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia. It took three months, and a few battles, to convince Lee that Hampton was the man.

The first was the Battle of Haw’s Shop, fought 28 May 1864, where Hampton’s men fought an old man’s way, dismounted and relying on marksmanship rather than on an impetuous charge and it seemed to work. Wade Hampton discharged his mission (which was finding the dispositions of the Union infantry) and fought his men well before withdrawing them safely from a Union line that was being reinforced by General Custer.

At Trevilian Station, on 11 June 1864, he pursued and caught Phil Sheridan (and Custer). Asked what he proposed to do now that he had the Yankees in sight, he replied: “I propose to fight!” And his proposal was to fight in his style—what he came to call “riding infantry”: dismounted troopers, scattered through the woods and other cover, though the battle turned on a charge of the Sixth Carolina Cavalry (which included cadets from what is now the Citadel) led by Hampton. Hampton could not prevent Sheridan, the next day, from ripping up Southern railroad tracks, but he had, in the second biggest cavalry battle of the war, held the field against the Yankees and proven his mettle, yet again, as a combat commander.

It also highlighted something else about Hampton—he was adept at raiding raiders. He had done this before, on 1 March 1864, ambushing a column of Federal cavalry, under Colonel Judson Kilpatrick (a frequent Hampton nemesis), who had orders to raid Richmond. Instead, the raiders became the raided. He did it again at the end of June 1864, when he captured one hundred Yankee raiders who were fleeing—across Hampton’s headquarters as it turned out—from charging Confederate cavalry. (Hampton rode down with his orderlies, pistols drawn, to order and accept the Federals’ surrender.) Such performances won him his official promotion to corps commander. And he kept himself in Lee’s good graces with raids of his own, including his famous “Beefsteak Raid” in September 1864 that relieved the Federals of nearly 2,500 head of cattle.

Wade Hampton’s men participated in the defense of Petersburg, where on 27 October 1864, Hampton’s second son, Thomas Preston, a young but already twice-wounded staff officer, impulsively joined a cavalry charge. Hampton sent his eldest son, Wade IV, charging after him to bring him back. Hampton and his staff followed. They arrived just as Preston fell from his horse, mortally wounded. As they gathered around him, Wade IV was hit. Hampton cradled Preston while he died. Wade IV, hit in the back, would pull through. Hampton mourned only a moment and then returned to directing the battle. But there would be a new grit in his opposition to the Yankees—a grit made only more unappeasable by the destruction of his homes in South Carolina and what he saw as the barbarous Yankee way of war.

In January 1865, Lee endorsed Hampton’s transfer to South Carolina to defend his native state from the depredations of William Tecumseh Sherman. Jefferson Davis approved and promoted Hampton to lieutenant general. That made him the highest ranking Confederate cavalry officer in the war. The other cavalry officer to reach lieutenant general was Bedford Forrest, but Hampton held pride of place through seniority.

Wade Hampton refused to give in to counsels of despair. He continually insisted, argued, and acted on the conviction that Sherman could be stopped and that the Confederate States of America could still preserve their independence from the United States. He was, of course, wrong. But he was so committed to the cause that not only did he refuse to believe the first reports of Lee’s surrender, but he resolved that even if that were the case, and even if his new commander in North Carolina, Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered, he would ride west and continue the struggle from Texas. He would even, failing that, go to Mexico and fight for the Emperor Maximilian, or so a group of Union officers heard him say during Johnston’s surrender.

In the end, Wade Hampton did no such thing, but reconciled himself to trying to restoring his family’s fortunes in South Carolina and Mississippi. He had land, but it was burnt out. His possessions had been robbed from him. The slaves were gone, save for a few who remained to work for Hampton. He had money, but only in Confederate script, now worthless. His homes were cinders. But he bent his back to the task, building a house and plowing the fields, planting them not with cotton or tobacco, but with crops that would feed his family and the former slaves. When creditors called in his debts in 1868, the only way he could begin meet his obligations was to auction his properties.


Mary Singleton McDuffie Hampton

Mary Singleton McDuffie was born on July 7, 1830, in South Carolina. Wade Hampton III , son of Wade II and Ann (Fitzsimmons) Hampton, was born on March 28, 1818, in Charleston, SC, the eldest son of a wealthy and prominent cotton plantation owner. Raised in the aristocratic class, Hampton’s family was one of the richest in the antebellum South. His father taught him how to hunt and fish, and he became an excellent horseman and an expert shot.


General Wade Hampton

Owning as many as 3000 slaves, who worked the family’s enormous holdings, Wade Hampton I was a member of the US House of Representatives, and served as major general during the War of 1812, commanding an American army on the Canadian border. He amassed a huge fortune with plantations in South Carolina, Mississippi, and Louisiana. When Wade I died in 1835, he left his Revolutionary sword to Wade III.

Wade Hampton II served in the War of 1812 under Andrew Jackson, who chose Hampton to carry the message to Washington of the victory at the Battle of New Orleans. However, Wade II was perhaps best remembered for his domestic activities. He successfully managed the family plantations, and excelled in social and political life. He made the family home, Millwood, almost as much the political capital of South Carolina as was nearby Columbia. He amassed a library of over 10,000 volumes, one of the largest private libraries in the country.

Wade III’s privileged childhood years would be spent on the lavish family estates of Millwood and the family retreat and experimental farm called High Hampton in Cashier’s Valley, North Carolina. He received private instruction and entered the freshman class at South Carolina College (now the University of South Carolina) at age 14. In 1836, he graduated, and then studied law in order to better handle his business affairs.

Wade’s Aunt Caroline and her husband, Colonel John Preston, returned from Virginia to reside in the Hampton Town House in Columbia, and there began a lifetime relationship between Wade and John Preston. In 1838, Wade married Colonel Preston’s sister Margaret. Of their five children , Wade Hampton IV, Thomas Preston Hampton, Sarah Buchanan Hampton, John Preston Hampton died in infancy, and Harriet Flud Hampton died while still a child.

In 1852, Margaret Hampton died at age 34 of unknown causes.

Wade entered South Carolina politics as a dissenter to the “fire-eating” secessionists that held sway in that most militant Southern state. He was elected to the South Carolina General Assembly in 1852, and served there until 1858, followed by a stint in the South Carolina Senate between 1858 and 1861.

In 1853, Wade II had expanded his holdings in Mississippi and owned 10,000 acres in five plantations. Wade bought three plantations in Mississippi ( Wildwood, Bayou Place and Richland ). In 1855, he purchased 700 acres in Cashiers, North Carolina.

Wade Hampton married Mary McDuffie on January 27, 1858, at Albemarle Plantation in Richland, SC. They had four children : George McDuffie Hampton, Mary Singleton Hampton, Alfred Hampton, and Catherine Fisher Hampton who died in infancy. Wade began construction of a home for his wife in 1859. Diamond Hill , a large brick Greek Revival style house with a two-room library, was completed in December 1860, not long before the outbreak of the Civil War.

Meanwhile, Wade II had died in 1858, and Wade III inherited Walnut Ridge . He in his turn devoted himself to the management of his plantations in South Carolina and Mississippi . By 1861, his plantations were producing 5,000 bales of cotton a year, each crop worth upwards of a million dollars.

Wade was the epitome of the Southern gentleman: an equestrian, sportsman, and military and political leader. He was in his mid-thirties when the national debate over slavery came to a head in the decade before the Civil War. Wade opposed the institution of slavery (even though he and his family owned more slaves than anyone else in the South). He was against secession and was called a Union Democrat, yet he became a great Confederate leader. South Carolina voted to secede in December 1860 in Charleston.

The Civil War
Although his views were conservative, Hampton was loyal to his home state. During the final debate over secession in South Carolina, he argued against it, but once it became a fact, he put all his former doubts behind him and placed his wealth and his talents at the service of the Confederacy. He allowed his cotton crop to be used as collateral for government credit.

He resigned from the Senate, and was made Colonel by President Jefferson Davis on June 12, 1861, though he had no military experience, and received permission from Davis to raise a small private army, or legion. He clothed and equipped his force, called Hampton’s Legion – six companies of infantry, four companies of cavalry, and one battery of artillery equipped with six field guns – entirely out of his own pocket. Wade’s sons, Wade IV and Preston, were privates in the Legion.

He enlisted some of the best young men in the state to fill its roster, and its officers were recruited from the elite. Every step of its organization was reported in the newspapers. Their arrival in Richmond in the first weeks of the rebellion was publicly hailed. On July 4, 1861, he was attached to General Joseph E. Johnston’s Army.

Older than the other officers in the Confederate cavalry, Hampton was the antithesis of the banjo-serenaded “gay cavaliers” who were his peers. For Hampton, war was not a frolic or glorious adventure but a grim business, to be discharged as efficiently as possible and without relish. He conducted his affairs with a courteous reserve befitting the gentleman he was.

Despite his lack of military experience and his relatively advanced age of 42, Hampton was a natural cavalryman – brave, audacious, and a superb horseman. He merely lacked some of the flamboyance of his contemporaries, such as his eventual commander, J.E.B. Stuart, age 30. Wade was one of only two officers (the other being Nathan Bedford Forrest) to achieve the rank of lieutenant general in the Confederate cavalry service.

In his prime, Hampton was a big man. He stood six feet tall with the build of an athlete, and possessed great moral, physical, and political courage. His strength and endurance became legendary. Instead of a regular officer’s sword or a cavalry saber, he carried a huge double-edged straight sword that was all of 45 inches long.


General Hampton Equestrian Statue
South Carolina State House in Columbia

On July 21, 1861, at the Battle of First Manassas , Wade Hampton deployed his Legion at a decisive moment, giving the brigade of Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson time to reach the field. Wade was wounded while he led a charge against a federal artillery position, when a bullet grazed his scalp, but he had the wound bandaged and resumed command. Without any military training or experience, Wade had shown personal courage in his first time under fire, and an instinctive ability to lead men and read terrain.

Over the next few months, by his professionalism and zeal in recruiting, Wade won the personal friendship of army commander General Joe Johnston, who put him in command of a full brigade of cavalry in January 1862 and recommended him for promotion. When he led his brigade during the Peninsula Campaign in the spring of 1862, Wade won praise for “conspicuous gallantry” in an early skirmish, and another recommendation for promotion, citing his “high merit.” He was appointed brigadier general on May 23, 1862, while commanding a brigade in Stonewall Jackson’s division in the Army of Northern Virginia.

At the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31, 1862, Wade was severely wounded in the foot, but refused to leave the field. He remained on his horse , under heavy fire, while a surgeon extracted a musket ball from his foot. His boot was put on his wounded foot and he returned to battle. The next day the boot had to be cut off because his foot was so swollen and inflamed. He was sent home to Columbia on crutches but returned in less than a month.

After the Peninsula Campaign, General Robert E. Lee reorganized his cavalry forces as a division under the command of General J.E.B. Stuart , who selected Hampton as his senior Brigadier, to command one of two cavalry brigades. In December 1862, around the time of the Battle of Fredericksburg, Wade led a series of three successful winter cavalry raids behind enemy lines, capturing numerous prisoners and supplies without suffering any casualties, earning a commendation from General Lee .

Since Wade and his brigade were south of the James River recruiting during the Chancellorsville campaign, December’s raids stood as the last time he had been engaged, as the Gettysburg Campaign got underway in the early summer of 1863. His reputation by that time rivaled that of his superior, Jeb Stuart, and he had become a valuable officer to General Robert E. Lee.

Wade was one of the great finds among the officers corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. By the summer of 1863, he had been in command of his cavalry brigade for about a year, and had led it with unexcelled success. His only shortcoming was a tendency to neglect his mounts.

On the evening of June 8, 1863, almost the entire Calvary of the Army of Northern Virginia – five full brigades – were camped on the west bank of the Rappahannock River. The following morning, they were surprised by the full force of the Calvary of the Army of the Potomac, which had crossed to meet them at dawn.

On June 9, during the Battle of Brandy Station – the war’s largest cavalry engagement – Wade is credited with leading one of the most gallant Calvary charges of the battle. His actions might have resulted in the capture of the whole Union force on the field, had not his advance been checked by heavy Confederate artillery fire well-directed at the head of his charge. It was also at that battle that Wade lost his brother Lt. Colonel Frank Hampton to enemy fire.

Wade’s brigade then participated in Jeb Stuart’s wild ride to the northeast, swinging around the Union army and losing contact with General Lee. When the fighting began at Gettysburg on the morning of July 1, Wade was still with Jeb Stuart, in Dover, Pennsylvania, 23 miles northeast of the battlefield. All the cavalrymen were numb with lack of sleep after three solid days in the saddle since crossing the Potomac. But after a short rest in Dover, the division pushed on toward Carlisle in search of provisions, with Wade’s tired troopers at the rear of the column.

Halting in Dillsburg with the captured wagons and prisoners from the raid, Wade received word from Stuart before daybreak on July 2 that the army had been found at Gettysburg, and Wade headed south that morning. By 2:00 pm, his brigade had halted a few miles northeast of Gettysburg.

Stuart and Hampton reached the vicinity of Gettysburg late on July 2 , 1863. Waiting on his horse beside the road, Wade was confronted by a Union cavalryman pointing a rifle at him from 200 yards away. Wade charged the trooper before he could fire his rifle, and became involved in a strange duel with the blue trooper at close range. At one point, he chivalrously stopped to let the Yankee clean his gun before resuming the fight.

Wade at last wounded his assailant in the wrist, but just then another Union soldier, wielding a sword, rushed forward and blind-sided Wade with a saber cut to the back of the head. The general’s hat and thick hair saved him from a fatal wound. He returned to his brigade with a bloody four-inch gash on his scalp, as well as a shallow chest wound.

On the morning of July 3 , General Hampton and his men rode two miles out of Gettysburg on the York Pike, then turned south with Stuart’s other cavalry brigades. Their goal was to get in the rear of the Union army after the end of a Confederate cannonade, which would signal the beginning of the main Confederate attack against Cemetery Ridge – Pickett’s Charge .

At 3 o’clock that afternoon, the artillery went silent, but in their attempt to disrupt the Union rear, the Rebels collided with Yankee cavalry. In the swirling, hand-to-hand melee that ensued, Wade received two more saber cuts to his head, one of which opened the prior injury and left a long gaping wound. But the gash was plastered shut and he remained with his men.

Wade continued fighting until a piece of shrapnel penetrated his right hip , and he was unable to ride. He was carried back to Virginia in the same ambulance with General John Bell Hood.

In September 1863, while Wade convalesced, the cavalry was reorganized. General Lee made Wade a major general and placed him at the head of one of two cavalry divisions, with General Fitzhugh Lee in command of the other. Wade’s hip wound was slow in healing, and he took a full four months to recover, and was unable to return until November 1863.


Charge at Trevilian Station
Mort Kunstler, Artist
In early June 1864, General Philip Sheridan led 6000 Federal cavalrymen on a mission to destroy a vital section of the Virginia Central Railroad. On the morning of June 11, Hampton and 5000 Confederate cavalrymen intercepted Sheridan’s force at Trevilian Station in Virginia. The next day, the outcome was decided when a bold Confederate counterattack shattered the Federal line. On June 13th, Sheridan and his troops retreated without destroying the railroad.

In the spring of 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant began his Overland Campaign, determined to bring the war to an end. At the Battle of Yellow Tavern on May 11, 1864, J.E.B. Stuart was killed . A month later, at the bloody Battle of Trevilian Station, Wade commanded 5,000 cavalrymen in a gallant charge to ward off a raid by Union General Philip Sheridan’s cavalry of 6,000 men.

Wade was appointed Chief of Cavalry on August 11, 1864, commanding all of the cavalry in the Army of Northern Virginia. He lost no cavalry battles for the remainder of the war. At the siege of Petersburg a month later, Wade was pinned down with the Army of Northern Virginia, which was gravely short of supplies.

At 1 am one morning, with 4,000 Cavalrymen, Wade rode out to raid a poorly guarded federal encampment and pulled off the largest cattle rustle in history, which became known as the Beefsteak Raid . He captured 300 prisoners and 2,486 head of cattle, and drove them back to feed the starving Confederates.

Burgess Mill
In October 1864, during the Siege of Petersburg, before the winter weather shut down active operations for the season, General Grant made another Union effort to cut the remaining Confederate supply routes. “I think it cannot be long now before the tug will come which, if it does not secure the prize, will put us where the end will be in sight,” Grant told his wife Julia in mid-October. This plan came from General Meade, who was anxious to silence several Northern newspapers critical of his leadership.

Directed by USA General Winfield Scott Hancock, divisions from three Union corps (II, V, and IX) and Gregg’s cavalry division, numbering more than 30,000 men, withdrew from the Petersburg lines and marched west to operate against the Boydton Plank Road and South Side Railroad. The initial Union advance on October 27 gained the Boydton Plank Road shortly after 10:30 am, a major campaign objective.

Hancock’s only opposition had come from Wade Hampton’s cavalry , but now confronting him at Burgess’ Mill was a line of infantry and artillery posted across Hatcher’s Run and covering the Boydton Plank Road bridge. Every passing second meant more defenders were on their way from Petersburg. According to the original plan, Warren was to support Hancock, but his route led him into a nearly impenetrable underbrush. In a very short time his units became lost, confused, and unavailable to Hancock.

At about 1:30 pm, while Hancock was preparing for the next phase of his advance, Grant, Meade, and their staffs arrived. Grant undertook a personal reconnaissance of the enemy’s line behind Hatcher’s Run and concluded that a breakthrough would not be possible. Still hoping to punish the Rebels, Grant issued instructions for Hancock to hold his position until noon the next day “in hope of inviting an attack.” Grant and Meade left Hancock around 4:00 pm.

Thirty minutes later, the Confederates attacked from three directions near Burgess’ Mill . Some of Hampton’s cavalry pushed east along the White Oak Road while another portion of it came up Boydton Plank Road from the south, pressing Hancock’s rear guard. A force of Confederate infantry led by General William Mahone swept down across Hatcher’s Run and flanked one Union brigade. Hancock’s men stood their ground and beat off each attack, though they paid a heavy price for doing so, losing nearly 1,800 men.

At one point, Wade had sent his son Preston, a lieutenant and his father’s aide, to deliver a message. A while later, Wade and his other son, Wade IV, rode in the same direction. Before traveling 200 yards, they came across Preston’s body, and Wade IV was shot in the back as he leaned over his brother.

The younger son would survive, but Preston Hampton died from his wound. Wade carried his dead son from the battlefield never again would this grieving father allow any of his children to serve with him.

While Lee’s army was bottled up in the Siege of Petersburg in January 1865, Wade was detached from the Army of Northern Virginia to find new mounts for the battered Confederate cavalry. He was promoted to Lieutenant General on Feb 14, 1865.

Hampton’s home was destroyed when General Sherman’s Federal troops burned much of Columbia on February 17, 1865. Wade’s young son Alfred was there and later remembered the scattering of the corner brick pillars, and the mass of crushed bricks that were all that remained of his family’s home.

On February 24, Wade took command of General Joseph E. Johnston’s cavalry, about 4,000 men, and did what he could to arrest the advance of USA General William Tecumseh Sherman’s march northward from Savannah through the Carolinas in the late winter of 1865.

On April 16, General Johnston met with General Sherman at Durham to negotiate terms of surrender, and Wade was in attendance. On April 26, 1865, General Wade Hampton surrendered to General Sherman along with General Johnston’s Army of Tennessee at Bennett Place in Durham, North Carolina, after rising higher than any other amateur soldier in the Confederacy.

Postbellum Life
After the war, Wade returned to Columbia and found his homes and estates in ruins. He did not rebuild Diamond Hill , but instead used the bricks to construct a modest cottage that he called Southern Cross on the Diamond Hill property. Much of Wade’s fortune had been depleted supplying his soldiers, and his many slaves had been freed by the Union Army. He engaged in cotton planting, but was not successful. He filed for bankruptcy in 1868.

Wade accepted from the first all the legitimate consequences of defeat, an entire submission to the law, and the civil and political equality of the former slaves but he steadily defended the motives and conduct of his people and their leaders. He encouraged Southerners to accept their defeat graciously, and set an example for better race relations by constructing a school and a church for emancipated slaves. He said: “As a slave, he was faithful to us as a free man, let us treat him as a friend. Deal with him frankly, justly, kindly.”

Wade was offered the nomination of governor in 1865, but refused because he felt that those in the North would be suspicious of a former Confederate General seeking political office only months after the end of the War. Despite his refusal, Hampton had to campaign for his supporters not to vote for him in the election.

1867 saw the beginning of Reconstruction , which was characterized by eight years of turmoil and corruption. The South was divided into military districts and the state governments were liquidated . Wade’s conciliatory policy toward the ex-slaves found little favor for some time. He spent the Reconstruction period on his Mississippi plantations. Efforts there to rebuild his fortune failed, and the general was forced into bankruptcy by 1868 .

In 1869, Wade founded the Southern Life Insurance Company in Atlanta, along with General John B. Gordon and Benjamin H. Hill. Jefferson Davis became the president of the company.

Mary McDuffie Hampton died on March 1, 1874, at Charlottesville, Virginia, a serious blow to her husband.

South Carolina Governor
Wade became a leader in opposing the Republican regime in South Carolina, and emerged as the leader of the so-called Bourbons. He ran for governor of South Carolina against the incumbent, Daniel Chamberlain, a Maine carpetbagger (a Northerner seeking private gain under Reconstruction). Foes of Radical Reconstruction in South Carolina saw the general as the perfect conservative choice for the governorship in the tumultuous election of 1876. A sad factor in his seeking public office was that he needed the income these positions generated.

The vote was very close , and both parties claimed victory. For over six months, there were two legislatures in the state, both claiming to be authentic. Eventually, the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled Hampton as the winner of the election by 1,100 votes.

The election of the first Democrat in South Carolina since the end of the Civil War, as well as the national election of Rutherford B. Hayes as President, signified the end of the long period of Reconstruction in the South.

The incumbent Governor Chamberlain refused to vacate the State House. Finally, after four months, President Hayes intervened. Chamberlain was forced to leave, and Federal troops were withdrawn at last in April 1877, and Wade finally began his two-year term in office.

As Governor, Wade’s top aides included M.C. Butler, Johnson Hagood, and Joseph Kershaw – all had been Confederate generals. Wade attributed his victory to 17,000 Negro voters, and as promised, appointed over 80 blacks to office . He supported black suffrage, and his administration was characterized by honesty and fiscal conservatism. He worked hard to live up to his pledges of equal treatment for both races, but even the respected Hampton was unable to stem the tide of those who wanted total disenfranchisement and segregation at any cost .

On November 6, 1878, Wade won re-election as governor easily. The next day, he went on a deer hunt, where he fell and sustained a compound fracture of his right leg. He developed an infection, severe pain, and a high fever he was sick for some time, and an amputation below the knee was required one month later.

Despite refusing to announce his candidacy, Hampton was elected to the United States Senate by the South Carolina General Assembly, on the same day his leg was amputated, to take office in March 1879. He served there for thirteen years.


Senator Wade Hampton III

While in the Senate, Hampton found his political influence waning, and with the election of Pitchfork Ben Tillman as Governor in 1890, Wade’s influence dwindled even further. Tillman engineered Wade’s defeat for another term in the Senate in 1890. Wade was all but destitute after the election, and his political influence was at an end.

In 1893, Wade was appointed United States Railroad Commissioner by President Grover Cleveland, a position Wade held until 1897. He went on a transcontinental trip in a private railroad car, and later became the director of two railroads.

In 1899, Southern Cross and the house at Millwood were burned by arsonists . Only Wade’s Civil War swords and silver were saved. An elderly man, he had limited funds and limited means to find a new home. Over his strong protests, the people of Columbia raised funds throughout the state to build a residence for him at the corner of Barnwell and Senate streets.

In 1901, Wade became increasingly ill, and Dr. Watt Taylor diagnosed a “heart condition complicated by old age.” His children and his sisters gathered at his bedside, and he spoke his final words, “God bless all my people, black and white.” He was the most revered man in the history of South Carolina, and yet he died an old man in near poverty.

General Wade Hampton III died on April 11, 1902, at the age of 84, exactly 25 years to the day after he became governor. More than 20,000 people lined the streets at his funeral, said to be the largest in South Carolina. He is buried Trinity Cathedral Churchyard in Columbia,

Wade left his real estate in South Carolina to his daughter Daisy, who had been his caretaker. Son McDuffie received three silver racing cups, and the remainder of his silver was divided among the three children.

Five columns still stand at Millwood. Now crumbled and covered with vines, they serve as a ghostly reminder of those towering figures in South Carolina history, the three Wade Hamptons.


Wade Hampton: Confederate Warrior, Conservative Statesman

On the eve of the American Civil War, Wade Hampton, one of the wealthiest men in the South and indeed the United States, remained loyal to his native South Carolina as it seceded from the Union. Raising his namesake Hampton Legion of soldiers, he eventually became a lieutenant general of Confederate cavalry after the death of the legendary J. E. B. Stuart. HamptonÆs highly capable, but largely unheralded, military leadership has long needed a modern treatment.

After the war, Hampton returned to South Carolina, where chaos and violence reigned as Northern carpetbaggers, newly freed slaves, and disenfranchised white Southerners battled for political control of the devastated economy. As Reconstruction collapsed, Hampton was elected governor in the contested election of 1876 in which both the governorship of South Carolina and the American presidency hung in the balance. While aspects of HamptonÆs rise to power remain controversial, under his leadership stability returned to state government and rampant corruption was brought under control. Hampton then served in the U.S. Senate from 1879 to 1891, eventually losing his seat to a henchman of notorious South Carolina governor Pitchfork Ben Tillman, whose blatantly segregationist grassroots politics would supplant HamptonÆs genteel paternalism.

En Wade Hampton , Walter Brian Cisco provides a comprehensively researched, highly readable, and long-overdue treatment of a man whose military and political careers had a significant impact upon not only South Carolina, but America. Focusing on all aspects of HamptonÆs life, Cisco has written the definitive military-political overview of this fascinating man. Winner of the 2006 Douglas Southall Freeman Award.


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